Context: India, by virtue of being a member of the International Charter ‘Space and Major Disasters’ has
received a satellite data related to the Assam floods from other member nations including France, Russia
About International Charter ‘Space and Major Disasters’:
1. It is a non-binding charter.
2. It provides for the charitable and humanitarian related acquisition of and transmission of space
satellite data to relief organizations in the event of major disasters.
3. Initiated by the European Space Agency and the French space agency CNESafter the UNISPACE
III conference held in Vienna, Austria in July 1999.
4. It officially came into operation on November 1, 2000 after the Canadian Space Agency signed onto
the charter on October 20, 2000.
5. Only agencies that possess and are able to provide satellite-based Earth Observation data can be
members of the International Charter. The members cooperate on a voluntary basis.
How it works?
● The Charter is a worldwide collaboration, through which satellite data are made available for the
benefit of disaster management. By combining Earth observation assets from different space
agencies, the Charter allows resources and expertise to be coordinated for rapid response to major
disaster situations; thereby helping civil protection authorities and the international humanitarian
● This unique initiative is able to mobilise agencies around the world and benefit from their know-how
and their satellites through a single access point that operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and at
no cost to the user.
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● Faced with a major emergency, rescue and relief organisations that are armed quickly with reliable
and accurate information are better equipped to save lives and limit damage to property,
infrastructure and the environment.
● Satellites routinely monitoring Earth from space and delivering data to support rapid damage
mapping offer an objective tool to aid disaster management.
News: India has 2,967 tigers, a third more than in 2014, according to results of a tiger census. India has
achieved the target of doubling tiger population four years before the 2022 deadline.
State-wise tiger count
● According to the census, Madhya Pradesh saw the highest number of tigers at 526, closely followed
by Karnataka at 524 and Uttarakhand at number 3 with 442 tigers.
● While Pench Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh recorded the highest number of tigers,
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu registered the “maximum improvement” since 2014.
● Chhattisgarh and Mizoram saw a decline in their tiger numbers while tiger numbers in Odisha
remained constant. All other states witnessed a positive trend.
About All India Tiger Estimation
● The tiger count is prepared after every four years by the National Tiger Conservation Authority
(NTCA) provides details on the number of tigers in the 18 tiger reign states with 50 tiger reserves.
● However, this time, the census also included data collected from the rough terrains of north-eastern
states which was not possible due to logistic constraints before.
● The entire exercise spanned over four years is considered to be the world's largest wildlife survey
effort in terms of coverage and intensity of sampling.
● Over 15,000 cameras were installed at various strategic points to capture the movement of tigers.
This was supported by extensive data collected by field personnel and satellite mapping.
● Taking a step further, authorities have attempted to digitize the records by mandating the use of a
GIS based app called M-STRiPES (Monitoring System For Tigers-Intensive Protection and
Ecological Status) developed by Dehradun-based Wildlife Institute of India.
● Congested streets and polluted air are common experiences in India’s metropolises. Delhi tops the
charts and emissions are more than twice as high as other Indian megacities, such as Mumbai,
Bengaluru or Ahmedabad.
● India’s road transport emissions are small in global comparison but is increasing exponentially. The
Global Carbon Project reports that India’s carbon emissions are rising more than two times as fast
as the global rise in 2018.
● Reducing CO2 emissions of road transport leverages multiple co-benefits, for example, improving
air quality and increasing physical activity, which are critical for well-being, particularly in urban
● Climate action requires an understanding of how emissions vary with spatial context. Income and
urbanisation are the key determinants of travel distance and travel mode choice and, therefore,
● The way cities are built and the design of public transit are critical for low-carbon mobility systems.
● Average per capita commuting emissions are highest for the most affluent districts, which are
predominantly urban, and that heavily use four-wheelers for commuting. In contrast, average per
capita commuting emissions are lowest for Indian districts that are poor, and commuting distances
are short and rarely use three-wheelers.
Focusing on well-being:
● Mayors and town planners should organise cities around public transport and cycling, thereby
improving mobility for many, while limiting car use. Uptake of non-motorised transport emerges as a
sweet spot of sustainable development, resulting in both lower emissions and better public health in
● According to the recent National Family Health Survey (2015-16), nearly 30% of all men are
overweight or obese in southwest Delhi, but only 25% in Thiruvananthapuram and 13% in
Allahabad. These data correlate with high reliance of car use in Delhi and low demand for walking.
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● Increase in cycling will lower chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, while
also abating emissions. Car use, in contrast, correlates with higher rates of diabetes.
● Fuel price increases, congestion charges or parking management could be a strategy that improves
the well-being of individuals living in urban areas.
● India should double down in its strategy to transition to electric two and three-wheelers.
● India is the third-largest market for automobiles and is one of the world’s largest producers and
consumers in two- and three- wheelers and Indian companies can take a leading role in switching to
electric vehicles. This will also help in transforming India’s vision of ‘Make in India’.
● Compact cities improve accessibility and reduce emissions from transport and even the building
sector. Most Indian cities are already very dense, with few benefits expected by further high-rise.
● City managers should ensure that existing urban areas provide short routes and fast access to
schools, hospitals and jobs, otherwise, residents would be required to travel long distances.
Providing access to public service, choosing rapid transit over car driving in cities and supporting
the rise of electric two and three-wheelers will help drive India to a modern and low-carbon transport
system fit for the 21st century.
Vice President launched the Jharkhand government's 'Mukhya Mantri Krishi Ashirwad Yojana'
under which money will be directly transferred into the bank accounts of farmers in the state.
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Under the scheme, beneficiaries having farmland of less than one acre to five acres, will get
5,000 to 25,000 rupees in their bank accounts.
The Centre government has taken a pledge to double the income of farmers by 2022 and in that
endeavour, the government is continuously increasing minimum support price (MSP) for 23 farm produce.
The conservation of rainwater should be made people's movement and hoped that farmers will use
traditional method to help conserve groundwater.
The Centre and the state government's efforts in protecting the interests of farmers stressed on the
importance of developing village. Under the Mukhya Mantri Krishi Ashirwad Yojana, approximately 35 lakh
farmers will benefit and by October 3,000 crore rupees will be sent in the accounts of the beneficiaries. The
launching ceremony was also held in other 23 districts, apart from Ranchi.
A laser-guided land leveller harnesses technology to accurately flatten a field in a fraction of the
time used by a traditional oxen-powered scraper. Farmers save precious groundwater and increase
productivity by 10 to 15%. Such hitech levellers cost at least ₹3 lakh, way beyond the reach of the average
But a new app that’s being described as “Uber for tractors” offers a solution.
Agriculture Ministry wants farmers to have affordable access to cutting-edge technology at their
doorsteps. There are now more than 38,000 custom hiring centres (CHCs) across the country, which rent
out 2.5 lakh pieces of farm equipment every year. By the end of the month, there is a plan to launch a new
mobile app to efficiently connect farmers with these CHCs, just like Uber connects to cabs.
The CHC app is already open for registrations by the farmers, societies and entrepreneurs who run
these centres. So far, almost 26,800 CHCs have registered to offer more than one lakh pieces of
equipment for hire.
Once the app is officially launched, farmers who wish to hire equipment can register using their
names, addresses and mobile numbers, and then punch in their requirements.
The app will show the CHCs which have the equipment available within five, 20 and 50 km of my
location, with their rates. The CHC or just use the app can be used to book the equipment at a specific time
and location, and it will turn up just like an Uber.
Feedback from both the CHC and the farmers contributes to a rating system, allowing customers to
make informed decisions. The Ministry’s app will also create an invaluable database for policy-makers, who
can track the use and cost of equipment.
The system would also help to track the usage of new technology that the government wants to
promote, such as the Happy Seeder that aims to prevent stubble burning that causes air pollution, or solar
dryers that can help farmers process and preserve their produce. A successful demo has already been
done in Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Punja.